Although Minerva, the Roman goddess of war and wisdom, is usually portrayed as equivalent to the Greek goddess Athens, she is revered as a goddess of wisdom, for the light of dawn typifies knowledge. She guides heroes in war and is patroness of all art, crafts, guilds, and medicine. Called by Ovid “the goddess of a thousand words” she was the inventor of musical instruments, numbers, and many crafts including weaving. The serpent and the owl were sacred to her. The serpent is an emblem of life energy and the creative impulse. The owl is a symbol of death and wisdom, and thus Minerva, a goddess of the dawn and wisdom, is also the goddess of death and transformation. Minerva is am incantation of wisdom in human form, an affirmation that we can use our knowledge and wisdom in pursuit of any goal we choose.